Interrogatives or Who the what why?
Interrogatives are those little words that introduce questions, like who, what, why, which in English or có, càite, ciamar in Gaelic. On the whole these are pretty straight forward but first let's take a quick detour into history, as there are some historical oddities which are bound to confuse you at some point.
Interrogatives are not the most stable of words, strange as that may seem. Think about it; for example, no one uses wheretofore or whence any more. So, interrogatives can fall out of use, fuse, or do other funny stuff. A lot of that has happened in Gaelic over the centuries. For those reasons, some of the usages around interrogatives in Gaelic seem downright weird, such as asking có ás a tha thu when có is normally reserved for who or why people in Lewis say [deː] when everyone else says [dʲeː]. So, without much further ado, here's a family tree:
That's pretty much it. So in fact, it's not the expression có ás a tha thu that's weird but actually using có for "who" that's an odd innovation.
Indeed, càite... So a question that arises very often is why on earth all bar one interrogative require a relative clause to come after i.e. why is it we say có (a) chanas seo?, carson a chanas tu seo?, ciamar a chanas tu seo? and cuin a chanas tu seo? but càit an can thu seo?. Excellent question. In fact it's so good, I had to email my old prof and ask because I didn't have a scooby (I always just accepted that that's how it was, but then I'm more into sounds that word order).
So it turns out that Old Irish was thin on interrogatives compared to other languages and that cía and its unstressed siblings ci/ce/ca had to cover a lot of ground. One way in which this worked was that it could combine with a noun in a very familiar patter: slap méit (our modern meud) onto cía/ce and you get cía mméit/ce méit for "how many" (our modern co mheud). Thing is, even in Old Irish these were followed by relative clauses, so the above mentioned co for "where" aside, what was drafted in for "where" a lot was cía airm/c'airm (airm being an old word for "place).
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